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Children's Mathematical Graphics

Copyright - permissions

Our work represents over 25 years of original, in-depth research and the content of this website and all our publications are covered by copyright. We respectfully request that anyone using the term 'children's mathematical graphics', or wanting to use or in any way copy or reproduce any examples of children's mathematical graphics, graphicacy or photographs, or use or reference our work

  • in any publication;
  • on any taught course, seminar or presentation or;
  • on any website or elsewhere;

properly acknowledges our research, publications and this website, and includes both our names.

With the exception of personal use, all other reproduction is prohibited without permission from the authors, E. Carruthers and M. Worthington & their publishers, or from the web editor, M. Worthington.


We originated the term children's mathematical graphics (see for example, Worthington & Carruthers 2005, 2006) to describe the range of children's own mathematical signs and representations (graphicacy). These we identified from the hundreds of examples we collected and analysed from our teaching in the birth - 8 year age-range and from examples collected for our research, from children in their homes, nursery and schools. We continue to research, write and present our research and to provide continuing professional development. We are also founders of this international Children’s Mathematics Network, with members throughout the UK and around the world.

Background to this research

We were the first to analyse and chart children’s mathematical graphics which we show through our taxonomy.

Our work is regarded as seminal in the field and is independently acknowledged. Our publications are used throughout universities as key texts, and our research is used on courses for mathematics education and on courses on symbolic representation relating to literacy and numeracy. It is cited in the Williams Maths Review (2008: p. 4 & p. 34-37) and in the RECME research (NCETM, 2008) and included in several government publications, including a forthcoming document Children Thinking Mathematically, Problem Solving Reasoning and Numeracy in the EYFS (DCSF, 2009).



Practical mathematics

Challenges for children

Emergent Maths?


Official Recommendations: the 'Williams Maths Review' / 'Children Thinking Mathematically'

'Mark Making Matters' (DCSF, 2008)


    © Copyright M. Worthington & E. Carruthers 2012

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